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پناهجویان ایرانی - واردین قایق، استرالیا و حقوق بشر

واردین قایق، استرالیا و حقوق بشر

جمعه 23 دی 1390  04:09 ب.ظ

زندانی کردن پناهجویانی که به استرالیا با قایق سفر میکنند سیاست استرالیا بوده و به شدت از سوی حامیان حقوق بشر مورد انتقاد قرار گرفته است. در طول سفر به استرالیا در ماه می سال 2011 کمیساریای عالی سازمان ملل متحد برای حقوق بشر، ناوی پیلای از دولت استرالیا خواست که سیاست بازداشت اجباری را پایان بدهد. سازمان عفو بین الملل بارها این سیاست را محکوم کرد و گفت که استرالیا نیاز دارد که بیشتر به حفاظت حقوق پناهجویان و پناهندگان کار انجام بدهد. با وجود این، سیاست بازداشت اجباری تغییر نخواهد کرد.

به احتمال پاسخ انتقاد فعالان حقوق بشر، دولت استرالیا در نوامبر سال 2011 اعلام کرد که به پناهجویان ورود با قایق می توانند ویزای موقتی اعطا کنند. ویزای موقتی اجازه میدهد که پناهجویان در جامعه زندگی کنند در حالی که برنامه های کاربردی شان برای پناهندگی تصمیم گرفته شود. با این حال، به گفته وزارت مهاجرت، ویزای موقتی درخواست به درخواست اعطا میشود و اولویت برای آسیب پذیرترین و کسانی که مدت طولانی در بازداشت بوده اند داده میشود. رفتار پناهجویان در بازداشت نیز در نظر گرفته میشود. از نومبر تا به حال فقط 107 پناهجو از بازداشت توسط ویزای موقتی خارج شده اند و 4409 پناهجوی دیگر هنوز هم متوقف باقی مانده اند.

امکان ویزای موقتی برای پناهجویان وارد با قایق یک قدم به سوی پاسخ ملایم تر برای واردین قایق است اما این معنای پایان بازداشت اجباری نیست. از لحاظ تاریخی، سیاست های استرالیا نسبت به تازه واردین قایق شدیدتر شد، هنگامی که تعداد افراد وارد شده توسط قایق افزایش یافت. قوانین بازداشت اجباری در استرالیا در سال 1992 توسط دولت لیبر آن وقت در پاسخ به تعداد فزاینده ای پناهجویان از ویتنام ، چین ، و کامبودیا که در تلاش برای رسیدن به استرالیا با قایق بودند مقرر شد. این قانون میگفت که دادگاه استرالیا اجازه مجاز به تصمیم بازداشت پناهجویان را ندارد، اما گفت که آنان را نمی تواند طولانی تر از 273 روز (حدود نه ماه) بازداشت کند. در سال 1994 همین دولت قانون را دوباره تغییر داد و آن حکم را شدیدتر ساخت که بازداشت اجباری برای هر کسی که به استرالیا با قایق بدون اسناد معتبر میاید به طور نامحدود می تواند بازداشت شود.

در سال 2001 ، در پاسخ به افزایش تعداد پناهجویان ورود با قایق، دولت وقت لیبرال (به رهبری جان هاوارد) راه حل اقیانوس آرام را معرفی کرد. قبل از سال 2001 ، بیشترین تعداد پناهجویان وارد به استرالیا 19 قایق بود، که حامل مجموع 660 پناهجو بود. در سال 2001، 43 قایق حامل 5516 پناهجو وارد شد. در پاسخ به این افزایش، دولت استرالیا اعلام کرد جزایر استرالیا که بین اندونیزیا و سرزمین اصلی استرالیا استند دیگر بخشی از منطقه مهاجرت استرالیا نیست و همه پناهجویان وارد با قایق به بازداشتگاه جزیره کوچک نائرو برده خواهند شد. بسیاری از پناهجویان در نائرو برای سال ها بازداشت شدند. و تعداد قایق ها به طرز چشمگیری کاهش یافت.

در سال 2008 ، دولت لیبرال که به تازگی انتخاب شده بود (در این زمان به رهبری کوین راد) اعلام کرد که راه حل اقیانوس آرام را پایان خواهد داد اما برخی از جنبه های نظام بازداشتی همان طور باقی می ماند. پناهجویان وارد با قایق هنوز هم وضعیت پناهندگی خود را در خارج معرض (در جزیره کریسمس) عرض یابی میکنند اما آنان از بازداشت سریعتر رها میشوند. در اکتبر 2010 ، نخست وزیر جدید دولت لیبرال، جولیا گیلارد گفت که به این سیاست تغییرات بیشتر داده خواهد شد به طوری که کودکان و خانواده ها بتوانند در اقامت مبتنی بر جامعه به جای بازداشتگاه بمانند. با این حال، از سال 2008 ، تعداد قایق های وارد شده به طور پیوسته افزایش یافته است. در سال 2010 به تعداد 134 قایق حامل 6879 پناهجویان به استرالیا آمدند.

 زیرا که تعداد پناهجویان به طور چشمگیری افزایش یافته است، این احتمال وجود دارد که بازداشت اجباری به عنوان یک نیروی بازدارنده مورد استفاده قرار گیرد و ادامه یابد. هر دو از احزاب عمده ای سیاسی در استرالیا متعقد برای نیاز پردازش دریایی باقی میمانند و فقط در مورد این که آنان در کجا برگزار شوند بحث داردند. بازداشتگاه در نائرو یکی از گزینه های مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. سازمان عفو بین الملل گفته است که چشم انداز بازگشایی نائرو "هولناک" است زیرا که "پناهجویان برای سال ها در انجا متوقف بوده اند، دور از ضمیمه وکلا، رسانه ها، فعالان حقوق بشر و از حمایت جامعه. آنان اغلبً با توجه به اطلاعات مناسب در مورد آنچه که اتفاق میافتاد و حقوق آنان چه بود گفته نمی شد". سازمان عفو بر این باور است که احترام به حقوق بشر پناهجویان در استرالیا کاهش یافته است.


نوشته شده توسط: پناهجویان ایرانی پناهجویان ایرانی | آخرین ویرایش:- | نظرات() 

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